Origin of life in the universe?

Origin of life in the universe?


Origin of life in the universe?
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Before the origin of life, it is necessary to understand the origin of the Universe and Earth. From ancient times to medieval religious beliefs, everyone presented concepts and beliefs related to the origin of the infinite universe and the earth in different ways, but these There was an excess of religious faith and belief in all the concepts and beliefs and there was a lack of rationality and scientificity.

About the origin and development of the universe, modern and Most Accepted Scientific Concept Big Bang Theory

(The Big Bang Theory). According to this theory, about 15 billion years ago, the entire matter of the universe was contained in a single body, which was called Singularity. The universe was created as a result of the great explosion in this body. The process of evolution and expansion of the universe has been going on since the time of its creation.

In the process of evolution of the universe, from today about 4.6

Billion years ago, the Solar System was formed and the Earth was born. In course of time the earth became favorable for life and on it organisms originated and their gradual development took place. Earth is the only known planet in the universe that has life.

 Major theories related to the origin of life

When and how did life on earth originate? This is such a question, towards which man has been curious since the beginning. Various concepts and ideas have been presented since ancient times, which explain the origin of life on earth.

Some of these concepts were successful in explaining the process of origin and development of life to some extent scientifically and some failed. Such major concepts and principles are as follows-

Theory of Spontaneous Genesis

This is an ancient concept, according to which the origin of living things is possible from non-living substances. The ancient Greek philosopher and scholar Aristotle was also a proponent of self-generalism. Proponents of self-generalism believed that flies from dust, insects from dew and rotting flesh and fish from the mud and sand of the pond automatically arise. Although this concept seems ridiculous at the present time, but its importance lies in the fact that for almost 2000 years this concept was the origin of life.

remained at the center of the debate. in support and against Many experiments were also done.

Jane the Baptist Van Helmont's Experiments

(Experiments of Jan Baptist Van Helmont)

Van Helmont (1580-1644 AD) self proclaimed democracy.

Two major experiments were done in support-

In one experiment, he showed that mice can be produced in 21 days by putting together a cloth soaked in sweat and wheat earrings. In another experiment, he showed that placing Tulsi (Basil) between two bricks and keeping them in the sun produced scorpions.

 Experiment of Francesco Redi

Francisco Redi (1626-1697 AD) for his experiments

The medium itself refuted the principle of democracy.

Ready put the boiled animal meat in 3 bottles and

Out of them, 1 bottle is closed with cork and 1 bottle with cloth.

But, 1 bottle was left open. After a few days, worms developed in the open-mouthed bottle and

Insects also appeared on the bottle closed with a cloth

But they could not survive. Unlike these two, the bottle closed with a cork did not produce any insects.

From this, Redi concluded that, the larvae (insects) from the flesh do not spawn on their own, but flies when they lay eggs on meat If you do, then only this becomes possible.

Theory of Biogenesis

This theory developed in opposition to automatic democracy. According to this principle, the origin of living things is possible only from living matter and not from any non-living matter. This concept was introduced in the year 1858 by Rudolf Virchow (RudolfbVirchow) was presented.

In the year 1864, Louis Pasteur made flasks in the shape of a swan neck. Air could enter these flasks but dust, bacteria and other microscopic substances could not enter. Louis Pasteur boiled the beef broth and sterilized it and placed it in some flasks shaped like a swan's neck. Pasteur closed some flasks and left some flasks open. After examining the flasks after a few days, he found that the flasks that were closed had no microorganism.

There was no growth, but microorganisms were produced in the flasks that were opened. From this experiment, Louis Pasteur concluded that,

Creation is possible only from living beings, not from non-living. Similarly, he also proved from other experiments that air does not increase the growth of organisms.

 opened. From this experiment, Louis Pasteur concluded that, Creation is possible only from living beings, not from non-living. Similarly, he also proved from other experiments that air does not increase the growth of organisms.

Cosmozoic Theory

 In relation to the origin of living beings, scientist Richter presented cosmism in the year 1865. According to this theory, the organisms existing on the earth did not originate on the earth, rather, they came to the earth in the form of simple particles and spores (spores) from other planets of the universe. The scientist Helmholtz estimated in the year 1884 that, along with the falling meteorites, the protoplasm has reached the earth in some form or the other. Nobel prize winner The chemist Arrhenius presented the idea in the year 1980 that living beings are pervasive in the entire universe and. Their spores can move freely from one place to another.

chemical synthesis theory or materialism

(Theory of Chemical Synthesis or Materialism Theory)

This hypothesis about the origin of organisms was given by the Russian Biochemist A. I, Oparin (Alexander Ivanovichoparin) in 1924. In the book Origin of Life, Oparin expressed the view that life originated as a result of the gradual chemical evolution of carbon-based molecules in the original or Primordial Soup. Around the same time another British biologist JBs. Haldane also presented a similar theory to Oparin's Parthavar. That's why this concept is commonly called: Oparin Haldane Concept. The main points of this concept are as follows.

Earth's atmosphere was reducing in the initial stage of its development, that is, it had an excess of negative charges (intensification) and lack of free oxygen.

, In such a situation, organic compounds were synthesized in the presence of an external source of energy (ultraviolet light or lightning).

A series of reactions between simple organic compounds resulted in the formation of more and more complex compounds. For example, amino acids, fatty acids, pithanes, sugars, purines, etc.

Since these organic compounds are used in the formation of living things important role, so these compounds became the basis for the origin of life.

The combination of organic compounds resulted in the formation of polymers of these compounds, such as starch from sugar, polysaccharides and fatty acids from glycogen and cellulose, and fats from glycerol.

Nucleo-proteins are formed by the interaction of amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids. 

  self in nucleoproteins; They have the property of self-replication, so they gave rise to the earliest organisms similar to Blue-Green Algae.

These early organisms were capable of photosynthesis. As a result, free oxygen (0) was liberated in the atmosphere, along with it (methane (CH) and ammonia present in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N) and water (H2O) were formed.

• According to Haldane, the early aquatic environment or the Primordial Sea served as a large chemical laboratory, receiving energy from the Sun. The atmosphere was free of oxygen, and the combination of carbon dioxide, ammonia and ultraviolet radiation produced organic compounds.

Gradually the Adi Sagar turned into a hot dilute soup, in which the density of organic monomers and polymers increased.

Haldane hypothesized that lipid membranes were formed in clusters of monomers and polymers, and a later evolution gave rise to the first living cells.

Lipids

It is made up of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (0). is a substance which is insoluble in water. And it is soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform.

Lipids are important elements of living cells. Lipids include fatty acids, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides. Carbohydrates, Proteins and Lipids Plants and are the major structural components of animal cells.

Miller-Urey Experiment

Harold Urey and his disciple Stanley Miller in 1953 conducted some experiments to test the Oparin–Haldane hypothesis. He created conditions similar to the early Earth's atmosphere by taking water, methane, ammonia and hydrogen gas in a flask and flowing high energy through the continuous flow of electric current into it.

After a week, Miller found that the flask contained Most of the ammonia and methane were consumed in chemical reactions that resulted in the formation of carbon monoxide (Co) and nitrogen (N) and a dark colored substance in the water.

Some substances produced by this experiment cannot be identified.

but it was certain that, organic There was presence of organic polymers.

On testing the aqueous solution, it was found that various amino acids, many fatty acids, hydroxy There was presence of acid and amide products.

Oxygen Revolution

Photosynthesis Production of complete oxygen

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